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How parties are organized within and across nations

Books and Monographs


A Conceptual Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Political Parties,Monograph in Sage Professional Papers in Comparative Politics, 01-002. Edited by Harry Eckstein and Ted Gurr. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1970. Pp. 75-126.
The framework consists of 7 concepts dealing with parties' External Relations with society and 4 concepts concerning parties' Internal Organization. Specific Basic Variables linked to each concept are detailed in Part I of Political Parties: A Cross-National Survey:
Part I, "Variables,Codes, and Summary Statistics," covers 173 pages, all available online.
Its 15 chapters presents the conceptual framework and the basic data for all 158 parties.
Articles and Book Chapters


"Contemporary trends in party organization: Revisiting intra-party democracy" Party Politics, 26 (2020), 3-8, with Gabriela Borz.
Reviews the most important advances in the literature and critically examine issues such as: the link between party organization literature and organizational theory literature, between party organization and intra-party democracy or between party organization on paper and in reality.


"Effects of Party Organization on Performance during the 'Golden Age' of Parties," Political Studies, XLVI (1998), 611-63--with Tyler Colman.
Our findings on party organization and performance support arguments that Maurice Duverger made in his 1959 book, Political Parties, published during the "Golden Age" of political parties.


"Formalizing and Testing Duverger's Theories on Political Parties," Comparative Political Studies, 18 (July, 1985), 139-169. (With Desmond King) Reprinted in Steven B. Wolinetz, (Ed.), Political Parties (Hampshire, U.K., Dartmouth Publishing, 1998).
Identifies Duverger's key concepts on party structure, links the concepts in 19 formal bivariate propositions, operationalizes the concepts using data from a worldwide sample of 147 parties in 53 countries, and tests all 19 propositions. Twelve are supported by the cross-national empirical test.


"Cross-National Measures of Party Organizations and Organizational Theory," European Journal of Political Research, 11 (Winter, 1983), 319-332.
Discusses the relevance of organizational theory to the study of party organization and proposes four measures of party organization that have been used with some success in the study of 158 parties in 53 countries. It concludes by describing some relationships between party organization and party performance.
"A Comparative Analysis of Party Organizations--U.S., Europe, and the World," in William J. Crotty (ed.), The Party Symbol. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1980. Pp. 339-358.
Compares both American parties with 145 parties across the world. American parties rate lower on centralization of power, coherence, and involvement than do competitive parties in Western Europe, competitive parties outside of Europe, and parties worldwide, but concerning their degree of organization (structural differentiation) they are comparable to Western European parties.
Papers and Addresses


"Studies on Party Organization from the International Comparative Political Parties Project,"
paper prepared for a Roundtable on Research on Party Organization, 1985 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, New Orleans.


"Cross-National Measures of Party Organizations and Organizational Theory," prepared for the 1982 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, The Denver Hilton Hotel, September 2-5. (See 1983 article above)



"Variations in Party Organization Across Nations and Differences in Party Performance," paper delivered at the 1979 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington.
Almost 30 percent of the variance in electoral success among competitive parties could be attributed to differences in party complexity, centralization, and involvement. As theorized, more complex and less involved parties were higher in electoral success, and the relationship was stronger for competitive than non-competitive parties. Contrary to expectation, however, the more centralIzed parties also tended to be more successful.


"Conceptual Equivalence and Multiple Indicators in the Cross-National Analysis of Political Parties," paper delivered at the Workshop on Indicators of National Development, sponsored by ISSC/UNESCO/ECPR and held in Lausanne, Switzerland, August 9-14, 1971.
This paper is divided into two parts. Part I inquires into the cross-cultural applicability of the concept of political party as a unit of analysis in comparative research. Part II investigates the conceptual equivalence of different variables that are advanced as common indicators of basic properties of parties across cultures. Both parts rely heavily on recent literature about concept formation and concept measurement in comparative politics. The outcome of Part I is the formulation of a concept of party thought to be generally applicable to cross-cultural research. The outcome of Part II is the presentation of seven sets of indicators that have satisfactorily withstood the first stage of testing for conceptual equivalence in measuring seven major concepts in the comparative analysis of political parties.
"A Technique for Asessing the Conceptual Equivalence of Institutional Variables Across and Within Culture Areas," Prepared for delivery at the 1971 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, September 7-11.
This technique was developed to cope with the. problem of assessing the "equivalence" of observations made on political parties in different cultural contexts during the course of research on the International Comparative Political Parties Project. Called Z-Score Matrix Analysis, the technique is proposed as an alternative to principal components factor analysis to determine interrelationships among sets of variables thought to^be equivalent indicators of the same concept. It is especially suited for studying interrelationships among indicators for small numbers of cases and for inquiring into the patterns of indicator covariation for specific cases. Both features are thought useful for the comparative study of political institutions.
Book Reviews


Kay Lawson,
How Parties Work (New York: Praeger, 1994) in American Political Science Review, 89 (December, 1995), 1055-1056.