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Social Bases

How to analyze social bases of parties across nations, examples

Articles and Book Chapters


"Interest Aggregation and Articulation,"in The Encyclopedia of Political Science, Volume 3, (Washington, DC: CQPress, 2011), 798-799.
Citizens with similar political interests often organize into interest groups, which exert influne on politics through the related, but very different, concepts of interest articulation and interest aggregation.


"Regional and Religious Support of Political Parties and Effects on Their Issue Positions," International Political Science Review, 10 (1989), 349-370.
Focuses on the cleavage factors of region and religion in group support of national political parties. It discusses problems in analyzing these factors across cultures and illustrates the problems by analyzing social support for approximately 150 parties in 53 nations in all cultural-geographical areas of the world.


"Ecology of Party Strength in Western Europe: A Regional Analysis," Comparative Political Studies, 18 (July, 1985), 170-169. (With Svante Ersson and Jan-Erik Lane)
Ecological factors at the regional level within each country account for 75% of the variance in support for 93 parties over three elections during the 1970s. More than half of the "regional" variance could be explained by five "structural" properties of the regions: industry, agriculture, affluence, religion, and ethnicity.


"How Well Does 'Region' Explain Political Party Characteristics?" Political Geography, 2 (1983), 197-203. (With Robin Gillies)
Applies analysis of variance to 11 organizational characteristics of 147 political parties from 53 countries representing a stratified random sample of party systems in 10 cultural-geographic regions of the world. The study finds significant differences between the regional groupings of parties on all characteristics, with region predicting from 11 to 52 per cent of the variance in individual party traits.
"The Logic of Political Ecology Analysis," in Dag Anckar, Erik Damgaard, and Henry Valen (Eds.), Partier, Ideologier, Valjare. Abo, Finland: Abo Akademi, 1982. Pp. 211-263. (with Svante Ersson and Jan-Erik Lane)
We find both national determinants and regional factors that affect political alignments. It seems as if the extent of regional variation in Western Europe has beenunderestimated. The ecological models seem to do what one may expect from them: they explain well in some countries and for some parties, but they do not capture all the variance.
Papers and Addresses


"Region and Religion as Factors Underlying Support for National Political Parties," (see publication)
paper delivered at the XIV World Congress of the International Political Science Association, Sheraton Washington Hotel, Washington, D.C., August 28-September 1, 1988.
"How Good Are Regional Explanations of Party Politics?" (see publication)
prepared for delivery at the 1982 Meeting of the Southwestern Political Science Association, San Antonio, March 17-21. (With Robin Gilles)
"The Logic of Political Ecology Analysis," (see publication )
prepared for delivery at the 1982 Meeting of the International Sociological Association, Mexico City, August. (With Svante Ersson and Jan-Erik Lane)
"Ecological Determinants of Regional Voting Patterns in Western Europe,"
delivered at the 1982 Meeting of the International Sociological Association, Mexico City, August. (With Svante Ersson and Jan-Erik Lane)
(see publication)


"Social Aggregation, Articulation, and Representation of Political Parties: A Cross National Analysis," paper delivered at the 1975 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco. (With Robin Gillies)
This paper investigates social cleavages as they relate to the structure of popular support of political parties. It involves (1) a summary of some of the literature; (2) the development of three measures of the structure of party support: social representation, social aggregation, and social articulation; (3) a discussion of the International Comparative Political Parties Project data on which the analyses in the paper are based; (4) an examination^of the structure of party support in order to determine the political importance of social cleavages; and (5) an examination of the consequences of the structure of party support for the success and policies of political parties.
Book Reviews


Ian Budge, Ivor Crewe, and Dennis Farlie (eds.).
Party Identification and Beyond: Representations of Voting and Party Competition. (London: Wiley, 1976) in Computers and The Humanities, 13 (1979), 131-132.