Neal Allen and Brian J.
Brox, "The Roots of Third Party Voting: The 2000 Nader
Campaign in Historical Perspective," Party Politics,
11 (September, 2005), 623-637.
Last Paragraph of Introduction:
In this article we seek to identify the connections between
Nader and his predecessors, and to shed light on the voting
for minor party presidential candidates generally. We study
support for Nader and other significant third party
candidates at both the aggregate and individual level,
analyzing the geographical distribution of voters as well as
election year survey data. By looking at the campaign
appeals made by these significant third party candidacies as
well as individual-level data on third party voters (in the
years for which we have survey data), we can see how Ralph
Nader's campaign for president in 2000 fits into a long line
of 20th-century third party challenges.
Figures and Tables:
Table 1. Impact of electoral context on the Nader vote
Table 2. Relationship in state-wide third party
Table 3. Determinants of third party voting
On the whole, however, our analysis of voters who support
third party and independent presidential candidates suggests
that these voters, in keeping with the history of third
party candidacies as vehicles for protest against the
two-party system, would have voted for other independent or
third party candidates, or would have not voted, if Nader
had not been an available alternative to Gore or Bush.